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Table 4 Mean frequency, standard deviation, and proportion of referential markers subcategory

From: Impact of teacher-student writing conferences on frequency and accuracy of using cohesive devices in EFL students’ writing

Referential Markers Test M SD Percentage
Overall References Pre-test 29.91 11.01 18.16%
Post-test 23.26 7.11 14.51%
1st &2nd Personal Pronouns Pre-test 11.91 6.11 7.23%
Post-test 7.00 4.81 4.37%
3rd Personal Pronouns Pre-test 9.52 5.17 6.03%
Post-test 11.57 4.97 7.22%
Demonstrative Pronouns Pre-test 2.39 1.85 1.52%
Post-test 1.52 1.34 0.95%
Comparative Pronouns Pre-test 1.22 1.48 0.77%
Post-test 0.43 0.66 0.27%
The definite article ‘the’ Pre-test 5.09 3.04 3.09%
Post-test 2.74 2.16 1.71%
The zero article Pre-test 10.61 5.68 6.44%
Post-test 18.87 6.29 11.77%