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Table 10 Paired samples t-tests of both groups (MRQ before and after treatment)

From: Comparing the impacts of various inputs(I + 1 & I-1) on pre-intermediate EFL learners’ Reading comprehension and Reading motivation: the case of Ahvazi learners

 Mean differencesSDSEMtdfpCohen’s d
i + 1−5.148158.865251.70612− 3.01726.0060.969698
i-1.703708.964951.72531.40826.6870.127414