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Table 1 Frequency and percentage of participants’ responses

From: Motivation and attitude towards shadowing: learners perspectives in Japanese as a foreign language

  Item summary Agree + Strongly agree Partially agree Partially disagree Disagree + Strongly disagree Mean (SD)
Improvement (α = .907)
Listening (Lt) 1 Shadowing is effective in improving listening skills. 23 (63.9%) 7 (19.4%) 5 (13.9%) 1 (2.8%) 4.69 (1.091)
2 Listening skills improve if shadowing improves. 21 (58.3%) 12 (33.3%) 3 (8.3%) 0 (0%) 4.72 (0.914)
3 Listening skills improve the more practice shadowing. 22 (61.1%) 10 (27.8%) 3 (8.3%) 1 (2.8%) 4.72 (1.031)
4 Became better at listening after practicing shadowing. 28 (77.8%) 5 (13.9%) 3 (8.3%) 0 (0%) 4.94 (0.860)
5(−) Don’t think shadowing is good for listening skills. 1 (2.8%) 4 (11.1%) 8 (22.2%) 23 (63.9%) 4.78 (1.098)
Speaking (Sp) 1 Shadowing is effective in improving pronunciation. 23 (63.9%) 10 (27.8%) 3 (8.3%) 0 (0%) 4.75 (0.874)
2 Speaking skills will improve if shadowing improves. 24 (66.7%) 1 (2.8%) 7 (19.4%) 4 (11.1%) 4.74 (0.922)
3 Speaking skills improve the more practice shadowing. 25 (69.4%) 6 (16.7%) 3 (8.3%) 2 (5.6%) 4.69 (1.064)
4 Pronunciation became better after shadowing. 16 (44.4%) 12 (33.3%) 6 (16.7%) 2 (5.6%) 4.31 (1.091)
5(−) Don’t think shadowing is good for speaking skills. 4 (11.1%) 3 (8.3%) 4 (11.1%) 25 (69.4%) 4.64 (1.355)
Attitude (α = .848)
Performance (Pf) 1 Become better at shadowing week after week. 21 (58.3%) 9 (25.0%) 5 (13.9%) 1 (2.8%) 4.61 (1.076)
2 It is important to practice shadowing at a faster speed. 13 (36.1%) 17 (47.2%) 4 (11.1%) 2 (5.6%) 4.25 (1.105)
3(−) Not necessary to practice at a speed faster than I can. 6 (16.7%) 7 (19.4%) 11 (30.6%) 12 (33.3%) 3.92 (1.339)
4 Can become better at shadowing if practice more. 29 (80.6%) 6 (16.7%) 1 (2.8%) 0 (0%) 5.14 (0.798)
5 Feedback is very useful to find mistakes. 26 (74.3%) 9 (25.7%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 5.06 (0.765)
Satisfaction (Sf) 1 Shadowing practice is a valuable learning experience. 22 (61.1%) 10 (27.8%) 4 (11.1%) 0 (0%) 4.81 (1.009)
2(−) Shadowing practice did not assist learning in Japanese. 2 (5.6%) 3 (8.3%) 8 (22.2%) 23 (63.9%) 4.75 (1.156)
3 Recommend shadowing practice to friends. 23 (63.9%) 9 (25.0%) 2 (5.6%) 2 (5.6%) 4.72 (1.085)
4 Continue shadowing even after completing this unit. 8 (22.2%) 15 (41.7%) 6 (16.7%) 7 (19.4%) 3.67 (1.242)
5(−) Don’t think shadowing improves conversation skills. 2 (5.6%) 8 (22.2%) 9 (25.0%) 16 (44.4%) 4.29 (1.274)
Motivation (α = .663)
Intrinsic (IM) 1 Like shadowing because it is challenging. 10 (27.8%) 13 (36.1%) 7 (19.4%) 6 (16.7%) 3.78 (1.290)
2 Correcting mistakes after the feedback is important. 25 (69.4%) 8 (22.2%) 3 (8.3%) 0 (0%) 4.89 (0.919)
3 Satisfying thing is to understand the content. 13 (36.1%) 9 (25.0%) 7 (19.4%) 7 (19.4%) 3.83 (1.320)
4 Choose material to learn even if not for a good grade. 19 (52.8%) 11 (30.6%) 4 (11.1%) 1 (2.8%) 4.54 (1.010)
5 Practice shadowing to sound like a native speaker. 13 (36.1%) 14 (38.9%) 6 (16.7%) 3 (8.3%) 4.17 (1.134)
Extrinsic (EM) 1(−) Shadowing should not be marked by the accuracy. 4 (11.1%) 4 (11.1%) 9 (25.0%) 18 (50.0%) 4.34 (1.327)
2(−) Not necessary to practice shadowing after feedback. 1 (2.8%) 6 (16.7%) 11 (30.6%) 18 (50.0%) 4.47 (1.082)
3 Want to get better marks in shadowing than others. 19 (52.8%) 9 (25.0%) 5 (13.9%) 3 (8.3%) 4.47 (1.253)
4(−) Practice shadowing to perform well in class. 8 (22.2%) 11 (30.6%) 7 (19.4%) 10 (27.8%) 3.61 (1.358)
5 Satisfied with 90% mark as already a high mark. 30 (83.3%) 3 (8.3%) 2 (5.6%) 0 (0%) 5.11 (1.105)
Cost (α = .671)
Cost (Ct) 1(−) Practicing shadowing makes me tired. 19 (52.8%) 8 (22.2%) 3 (8.3%) 6 (16.7%) 2.83 (1.612)
2(−) Cannot start working on shadowing easily. 16 (44.4%) 6 (16.7%) 4 (11.1%) 10 (27.8%) 3.14 (1.823)
3(−) Wait to start shadowing until the submission due date. 22 (61.1%) 8 (22.2%) 3 (8.3%) 3 (8.3%) 2.44 (1.370)
4(−) Frustrated easily when cannot catch up with the speed. 25 (69.4%) 5 (13.9%) 3 (8.3%) 3 (8.3%) 2.17 (1.363)
5 Shadowing is not painful. 7 (19.4%) 7 19.4%) 13 (36.1%) 9 (25.0%) 3.28 (1.579)
  1. (−) Reversed scores towards positive orientation in calculating Cronbach alpha