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Table 8 Descriptive Statistics for the observation at the stage of pre-writing

From: The effect of structured versus unstructured collaborative pre-writing task on writing skills of the Iranian EFL students

Items *VM +* M *A *Al +* A
1.Clarification of tasks objectives through providing collaborative task guideline and decision making strategy and supporting ideas before writing task 4 66.7% 2 33.3%   
2.Encouraging group dynamic and establishing team goals through assigning responsibility and defining members’ roles    3 50% 3 50%
3. Motivating students for further participation by means of group brainstorming (e.g. mind map, Charett method, think pair share and clustering techniques) 3 50%    3 50%
4. Use of authentic educational resources such as textbook or other realia. 5 83.3% 1 16.7%   
5. Awareness raising of learners’ ideas and encouraging organization of ideas by providing several opportunities for group practice through planning on how to deal with writing problems 4 66.7%    2 33.3%
  1. *VM: very much; *M: much; *AL: a little; *L: little.