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Table 4 Descriptive Statistics of English Vocabulary Gain Scores of RALL and non-RALL Groups

From: An innovative approach of incorporating a humanoid robot into teaching EFL learners with intellectual disabilities

   N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean
RALL Pre-test to post-test 5.00 12.40 1.51 0.67
Post-test to delayed post-test 5.00 −1.20 2.17 0.96
Non-RALL Pre-test to post-test 5.00 8.40 1.81 0.81
Post-test to delayed post-test 5.00 −2.00 2.00 0.89