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Table 8 Frequencies, percentages and standardized residuals of the efl learners’ proficiency-based perceptions towards explicit grammar instruction and corrective feedback

From: Iranian EFL teachers and learners’ perceptions of grammar instruction and corrective feedback

  Choices Total
Strongly disagree Disagree Undecided Agree Strongly agree
Elementary Count 209 232 108 672 580 1801
% 11.6% 12.9% 6.0% 37.3% 32.2% 100.0%
Std. Residual 3.4 −.8 −3.7 −.3 1.0  
Intermediate Count 168 278 155 665 538 1804
% 9.3% 15.4% 8.6% 36.9% 29.8% 100.0%
Std. Residual .2 2.1 .0 −.6 −.9  
Advanced Count 120 223 200 701 555 1799
% 6.7% 12.4% 11.1% 39.0% 30.9% 100.0%
Std. Residual −3.5 −1.3 3.7 .9 −.1  
Total Count 497 733 463 2038 1673 5404
% 9.2% 13.6% 8.6% 37.7% 31.0% 100.0%