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Table 5 Mean and significant levels of pairwise comparisons of vowels

From: L1 Korean vocalic transfer in adult L2 Korean learners’ production of Vietnamese monophthong vowels

B1-B0 B2-B1
  e ɛ Sig.   e ɛ Sig.  
Korean 4.43 4.41 p = 0.13 ns.   6.51 6.2 p = 0.47 ns.  
Korean imitation 4.42 4.65 p < 0.02 7.18 6.79 p < 0.01
Korean read aloud 4.14 4.14 p = 0.9 ns. 7.03 6.65 p = 072 ns.
Vietnamese 5.79 6.28 p < 0.004 6.38 5.68 p < 0.001
  ɔ o ɤ/ʌ Sig. ɔ o ɤ/ʌ Sig.
     ɔ-o ɔ-ɤ o-ɤ     ɔ-o ɔ-ɤ o-ɤ
Korean   3.9 5.41    p < 0.01   4.25 3.57    p = 0.057 ns.
Korean imitation 4.71 4.17 4.59 p < 0.0001 p = 0.06 ns. p < 0.0001 2.77 2.81 3.68 p = 0.58 ns. p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001
Korean read aloud 3.86 3.64 3.92 p < 0.01 p = 0.34 ns. p < 0.0001 3.07 2.95 3.56 p = 0.21 ns. p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001
Vietnamese 6.64 4.87 5.83 p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 3.48 5.37 4.32 p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001
  u ɯ Sig.   u ɯ Sig.  
Korean 4.24 3.55 p = 0.44 ns.   5 6.1 p < 0.02  
Korean imitation 2.72 2.69 p = 0.78 ns. 5.09 7.57 p < 0.0001
Korean read aloud 2.49 2.58 p = 0.63, ns. 6.39 7.77 p < 0.0001
Vietnamese 3.96 5.58 p < 0.0001 6.18 5.42 p < 0.005
  1. The non-significant difference between Vietnamese and Korean learners' Imitation and read aloud vowels e and ɛ are italicized
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