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Table 4 Vowel error matrix in Read-Aloud and Imitation tasks. Vertical: Target Vietnamese vowels. Horizontal: Vietnamese vowels pronounced by Korean learners. The bolded figures indicate percentage of correct/native like vowel production. The italic figures indicate the major error patterns

From: L1 Korean vocalic transfer in adult L2 Korean learners’ production of Vietnamese monophthong vowels

Vowels a ɛ e i ɔ o ɤ u ɯ x
Imitation
 a 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 ɛ 0 62 17 0 0 0 0 0 0 21
 e 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 i 0 0 0 73 0 0 0 0 0 27
 ɔ 0 0 0 0 67 33 0 0 0 0
 o 0 0 0 0 8 88 0 0 0 5
 ɤ 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0
 u 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0
 ɯ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 98 2
Read aloud
 a 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 ɛ 0 23 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 68
 e 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 i 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0
 ɔ 0 0 0 0 27 24 0 0 0 48
 o 0 0 0 0 6 89 0 0 0 5
 ɤ 0 0 0 0 12 0 30 0 0 58
 u 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 65 11 24
 ɯ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 94 5
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