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Table 3 Significant levels of the pair-wise comparisons of vowels produced by the four groups: control Vietnamese(V), control Korean (K), Korean imitation (KI), and Korean read aloud (KR). ns. means non-significance

From: L1 Korean vocalic transfer in adult L2 Korean learners’ production of Vietnamese monophthong vowels

Vowels B1-B0 B2-B1
V-K V-KI V-KR K-KI K-KR V-K V-KI V-KR K-KI K-KR
a p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p = 0.6 ns. p = 0.69 p < 0.001 p = 0.016 p = 0.24 ns. p = 0.15 ns. p = 0.07
ɛ p < 0.02 p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p = 0.38 ns. p = 0.21 ns. p < 0.01 p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p = 0.27 ns. p = 0.4 ns.
e p < 0.01 p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p = 0.89 ns. p = 0.41 ns. p = 0.67 ns. p < 0.01 p < 0.03 p = 0.13 ns. p = 0.3 ns.
i p = 0.66 ns. p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p = 0.16 ns. p < 0.02 p = 0.55 ns. p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p = 0.08 ns. p < 0.006
ɔ p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p = 0.69 ns. p < 0.003 p < 0.0001 p = 0.024 p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001
o p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p = 0.34 ns. p = 0.16 ns. p < 0.006 p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p < 0.006
ɤ/ʌ p = 0.25 ns. p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p = 0.002 p < 0.0001 p = 0.07 ns. p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p = 0.87 ns. p = 0.8 ns.
u p = 0.3 ns. p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p < 0.02 p < 0.0001 p = 0.47 ns. p = 0.88 ns. p < 0.005
ɯ p < 0.05 p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p = 0.06 ns. p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001
  1. The non-significant difference between Vietnamese and Korean learners' Imitation and read aloud vowels e and ɛ are italicized
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