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Table 1 The Vietnamese vowels

From: L1 Korean vocalic transfer in adult L2 Korean learners’ production of Vietnamese monophthong vowels

Position of the tongue front central back
Openness of the mouth
close i (i, y) ɯ (ư)a u (u)
Mid e (ê) ɤ (ơ) o (ô)
open ɛ (e) a (a) ɔ (o)
  1. aThe IPA symbol / ɯ/ is used by Dinh and Nguyen (1998); Thompson (1965); Nguyễn (1997); Đoàn (1977); Kirby (2011), and Emerich (2012) while some other authors (Han, 1966; Winn et al. 2008; and Brunelle 2015) use the symbol/ ɨ/ for this vowel