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Table 5 Coding Scheme

From: An exploration of strategies used by Chinese graduate students in electrical engineering and education: integrating questionnaire, task performance, and post-task recall data

Individual Strategies Definition
Social-Affective Strategies: Participants’ strategic behaviours or actions to encourage themselves to continue to communicate orally with others
 Lowering anxiety  Trying to relax to lower anxiety in speaking
 Self-encouragement  Encouraging oneself through positive statement
 Empathizing with others  Using rhetorical questions to seek emotional resonance
 Asking for assistance  Asking for assistance when encountering difficulties
 Turn-yielding—pausing  Pausing to yield a turn
 Turn-yielding—signalling  Using a filler to signal the end of turns
 Turn-requesting—demanding  Requesting a turn through asking questions
 Turn-requesting—raising voice  Raising voice to grab attention in order to take turns
Fluency-Oriented Strategies: Participants’ strategic behaviours or actions to speak more fluently
 Using fillers  Using fillers to gain time when encountering problems
 Referring to notes for fluency  Referring to notes to speak more fluently
 Rehearsing  Mentally rehearsing what to say
 Stalling  Pausing for a few seconds to gain some time
Negotiation of Meaning: Participants’ strategic behaviours or actions to interact with interlocutors in order to improve comprehension/comprehensibility
 Repeating  Repeating speech to be understood
 Exemplifying  Giving examples to make oneself understood
 Approximating  Using synonyms to clarify meaning
 Analogy  Using an analogy to make oneself understood
 Elaborating  Elaborating to clarify meaning
 Clarifying stance  Clarifying one’s position when there is misunderstanding
 Comprehension checks/seeking clarification  Making comprehension checks through questions
 Clarifying meaning  Clarifying meaning when there is misunderstanding
Accuracy Orientated Strategies: Participants’ strategic behaviours or actions to correct expressions when making mistakes
 Self-correction for accuracy  Correcting oneself to enhance accuracy
 Self-correction for preciseness  Correcting oneself to enhance precision
 Referring to notes for accuracy  Referring to notes enhance accuracy
 Correcting others  Correcting others’ speech
 Chunking  Chunking complicated sentences into simpler and shorter sentences
 Message reduction and alteration  Reducing an original message to avoid a communication breakdown
Nonverbal Strategies: Participants’ strategic behaviours or actions to use eye contact, gestures, or facial expressions to give hints or help the listener guess what they want to say
 Eye contact  Making eye contact with others to seek agreement or when encountering problems
 Gesturing—to indicate meaning  Using gestures to present the meaning of certain words
 Gesturing—to indicate problems  Using gestures to indicate that one has encountered difficulties
 Gesturing—directing  Pointing or using certain gestures to speak to a specific person
 Facial expressions  Using facial expressions to indicate disagreement or difficulties either in understanding or expressing
Message Abandonment Strategies: Participants’ strategic behaviours or actions to give up their attempts to communicate
 Avoidance  Giving up trying to express intended meaning, resulting in avoidance
Translation: Participants’ strategic behaviours to translate directly from the first language to the target language
 Translating  Translating from Chinese to English