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Table 4 Mean ratings for cross-examination speeches of Japanese and English debates

From: The language deficit: a comparison of the critical thinking skills of Asian students in first and second language contexts

Question Japanese English Diff. P value
Did the speakers show understanding of their opponents’ arguments? 3.96 1.80 + 2.16  
Did they find flaws or inconsistencies in their opponents’ arguments? 3.62 1.92 + 1.70  
Did they explain their cross-examination clearly? 4.12 2.30 + 1.82  
TOTAL MEAN SCORE 3.90 2.01 + 1.89 0.0001